Open Access Original Research Article

Promoting Reading Habits of the Children of Class IV: Study of Upper Primary Student of Ramchetsekha PS, Paro

. Toujay, kuenzang Tenzin

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v20i230479

Purpose: This study is an attempt to understand the reading habits of class IV students in Ramchetsekha Primary School, Paro. The study also aims to promote reading habits in the students.

Design/methodology/approach: The researcher took anchor of a qualitative research design aligned to social constructivism paradigm through phenomenological approach. The researcher focused on class four children and teachers as participant sampling in the school. Semi-structure interview was used as a research tool and their information was recorded and transcribed later by the researcher.

Findings: The study found out that reading programme in the school is loosely matched with the needs of the children to develop their reading habits. Sporadic reading programme were organized in the form of onetime events without aligning with improvement priorities and goals. The school sometimes chooses faddish improvement involving one-shot programme with no follow-up support. Furthermore, it was revealed that the children depend largely on notes given by the teachers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Smoking among High School Students in Thimphu, Bhutan

Pema Namgay, Tashi Dendup, Kezang Choden

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v20i230480

Smoking is common among youths due to the increasing pace of modernization. It is also a major public health problem worldwide, causing preventable deaths and giving socio-economic burdens to society. Despite strict surveillance and the Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan, Bhutanese youths are increasingly found smoking. However, Bhutan has limited studies on smoking, particularly focusing on high school students. Thus, this study determined the prevalence of smoking among high school students of Thimphu, Bhutan. The self-structured questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 357 students determined using the Yamane formula. The result showed that the overall prevalence of smoking was 48.5%. More male students (63.6%) were found smoking than female students (28.3%). Students smoked different forms of tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, hookah, and bidis, but commonly used tobacco product was cigarettes (63.4%). The most cited reasons for smoking were addiction, followed by peer pressure and outlook fashion. The risks of tobacco use are highest among those who start early and continue its use for a long period. Therefore, the early age of smoking initiation underscores the urgent need to intervene and protect high school students from falling prey to smoking addiction.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Examination of the Relationship between Self-Compassion and Positive Mental Health of Undergraduate Students of Royal University of Bhutan

Kalpak Chaudhuri, . Dawala, Sonam Dema, Sonam Wangmo, Khem Prasad Gautam

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 22-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v20i230481

Aims: The study examined the relationship between self-compassion and positive mental health of undergraduate students of the Royal University of Bhutan.

Study Design:  It was a correlational study.

Place and Duration of Study: The sample consisted of students of Gedu College of Business Studies, College of Science and Technology, Samtse College, Norbuling Rigter College, Royal Thimphu College, Paro College of Education, College of Language and Cultural Studies, Sherubtse College, in Bhutan, between July 2020 and June 2021.

Methodology: Participants were 321 undergraduate students (184 female, 137 male), between 17 and 40 years of age. To assess self-compassion and positive mental health they completed a questionnaire that consisted of the Self-Compassion Scale–Short Form (SCS-SF) and the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF).

Results: There was not a significant difference in overall mental health scores between the male students (M = 2.560, SD = 1.325) and the female students (M = 2.339, SD = 1.254); t(319) = -1.525, p = .128. Among the students surveyed, 24.6 percent were flourishing, 42.1 percent were moderately mentally healthy, and 33.3 percent were languishing. The percentage of female students (35.3) languishing was higher compared to male students (30.7). The participants had a moderate level of self-compassion (M = 3.034, SD = 0.403). The male students (M = 3.092, SD = 0.415) were significantly more self-compassionate than the females (M = 2.991, SD = 0.389); t(319) = -2.230, p = .026. Self-compassion was significantly positively correlated with the positive mental health of the students (r = .337, p < .001). Self-kindness (r = .298, p < .001), mindfulness (r = .278, p < .001), common humanity (r = .240, p < .001), self-judgment (r = .126, p = .024), and isolation (r = .119, p = .033) components of self-compassion were found to be significantly positively correlated to positive mental health. Over-identification had a non-significant weak correlation with positive mental health (r = 0.09). According to regression results, mindfulness (β = .18, p = .017), self-kindness (β = .17, p = .023), and self-judgment (β = .15, p = .006) significantly positively predicted positive mental health. The regressor, mindfulness, had the highest correlation with positive mental health. Self-compassion has explained 11.1 percent of the variance in positive mental health, F (3, 317) = 14.385, p < .001.

Conclusion: Enhancing mindfulness is a promising positive intervention to improve positive mental health and reduce the risk of mental illness of the students in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reflective Practices in Teaching: A Study on Faculties of Royal University of Bhutan Colleges

Kinga Wangpo, Sonam Wangmo, Kalpak Chaudhuri, Yeshi Pelden

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 50-63
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v20i230483

Aims: Reflective practice refers to teachers' conscious efforts to question their daily activities in the classroom to help them learn and develop professionally. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of reflective practices among Royal University of Bhutan (RUB) faculty members, as well as if these activities differed according to demographic characteristics of the respondents. The study's theoretical framework is the four reflective lenses of Brookfield, namely: student's eye, colleague's eye, Research and theory, and personal experiences/ autobiographies.

Study Design: A descriptive research design with a quantitative approach was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Bhutan for a period of one year (2020-2021)

Methodology: A total of 186 faculty members from the colleges of the Royal University of Bhutan participated in the study using an online structured questionnaire through Google Form. Descriptive statistics, a one-sample t-test, One-way ANOVA, and an independent sample t-test were used to evaluate and present the findings.

Results: The findings revealed that Royal University of Bhutan colleges' faculty members engage in reflective practices, with student feedback being the most widely utilized strategy for reflection among the four lenses, and peer feedback being the least used technique. The results also showed that there were no differences in educators' reflective practices depending on gender, the number of years of teaching experience, or training attended during in-service years.

Conclusion: The study's main recommendations are to promote peer help in enabling classroom reflection and to provide faculty members with training and development opportunities in various teaching pedagogies.

Open Access Review Article

Unemployment and Youth Restiveness in Africa: Implications for Counselling

Chigbu Francisca Eberechukwu, Oguzie Alphonsus Ekejiuba, Obi Joy Sylvia Chisara

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 36-49
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v20i230482

Restiveness among youths has become one of the nagging global challenges. Consequently, its prevalence in Africa has become more worrisome now than ever before. This paper therefore examined unemployment and the incidences of youth restiveness in Africa: Implication for counseling. The paper adopted a qualitative approach relying mainly on secondary materials from documented evidences. Available data indicates persistent rise in the level of unemployment across different African countries. By the same token there have also been high incidences of restiveness among the youths in Africa within the same period. However, the paper brought to the fore specific instances of restiveness in select African countries namely; militancy and insurgency in Nigeria Niger Delta, xenophobic attacks in South Africa, socio-political crises in southern Cameroun, ethnic and religiously motivated restiveness in Mali and rising piracy and terrorism in Somalia as case studies. The paper identified poverty, unemployment, socio-economic and political inequality and marginalization as factors of youth restiveness. These factors no doubt are in high prevalence in Africa. Given the scenario, the implication for counseling is of great consequence as the concern revolves around how counselling services can be leveraged in the context so that the youths can be properly engaged to embrace genuine efforts towards self-development, skills acquisition, self-reliance and nation building. It is argued that the solution to unemployment and youth restiveness problems lie in part on counsellors constructive engagement with youths, on awareness creation through the media, education of the youth towards self-realization and on their pivotal roles in nation building.