Exploring the Impact of School Leadership on Professional Development in Panabo City Division, Philippines: A Mixed-Method Explanatory Research Study

Ruel B. Ramos *

Department of Education- Schools Division of Panabo City, Datu Abdul Elementary School, Philippines.

Marleonie M. Bauyot

Ateneo de Davao University, Davao City, Philippines.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This study investigates the relationship between school leadership and professional development in the educational setting of Panabo City Division, Philippines. Using a mixed-methods approach, quantitative data were collected through surveys of teachers and school leaders, while qualitative insights were garnered through focus groups and interviews. The data show that school leaders are widely regarded positively, with high mean scores indicating effective participation, supportive behaviors, and clear communication. Similarly, professional development efforts received excellent marks for continual learning, reflective practice, collaborative networking, and creative teaching methods. Statistical research shows a substantial positive association (r = 0.90, p < 0.05) between school leadership and professional development, highlighting the importance of leadership in creating a supportive atmosphere for teacher development. Qualitative findings reveal how supportive leadership behaviors such as resource allocation, collaborative learning communities, and appreciation of teachers' contributions improve professional development outcomes. These findings have practical significance for educational policymakers and school leaders looking to improve leadership practices and maximize professional development programs, which enhances teaching effectiveness.

Keywords: School leadership, professional development, mixed-methods explanatory research study

How to Cite

Ramos, Ruel B., and Marleonie M. Bauyot. 2024. “Exploring the Impact of School Leadership on Professional Development in Panabo City Division, Philippines: A Mixed-Method Explanatory Research Study”. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies 50 (7):467-85. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajess/2024/v50i71477.


Download data is not yet available.


Hu Y. Influence of school leaders’ transformational leadership on the innovation ability of university teachers. Journal of Education and Educational Research. 2024;7(2):79–89. Available:https://doi.org/10.54097/bmt8jx37

Brahami M, Matta N. The relationship between the knowledge mapping and open innovation process: The case of education system. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing (AIEDAM). 2019;33:1-13. Available:https://doi.org/10.1017/S0890060419000325

Kilag OKT, Sasan JM. Unpacking the role of school leadership in teacher professional development. Advanced Qualitative Research. 2023;1(1):63-73.

Balili DM, General LT. Transformational leadership of school leaders and school culture as predictors of professional commitment.

Anajao EA, Serras RL. Management styles of school leaders and instructional competence of public secondary teachers in Panabo City Division. EPRA International Journal of Environmental Economics, Commerce and Educational Management (ECEM), 2024;11(5):29-36.

Kilag OKT, Malbas MH, Nengasca MKS, Longakit LJH, Celin LC, Pasigui R, Valenzona MAVN. Transformational leadership and educational innovation. European Journal of Higher Education and Academic Advancement. 2024;1(2):103-109. Available:https://journal.silkroad-science.com/index.php/EJHEAA/article/view/107/88

Khasawneh YJA, Alsarayreh R, Al Ajlouni AA, Eyadat HM, Ayasrah MN, Khasawneh MAS. An examination of teacher collaboration in professional learning communities and collaborative teaching practices. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, 2023;10(3):446-452.

Byrd M. Strategies for increasing employee engagement in media organizations (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University); 2023. Available:https://www.proquest.com/openview/9946cbbd4a110bd6ebf58b3a1beea499/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y

Admiraal W, Schenke W, De Jong L, Emmelot Y, Sligte H. Schools as professional learning communities: What can schools do to support the professional development of their teachers? Professional Development in Education. 2021;47(4):684-698. Available:https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19415257.2019.1665573

Dimapilis RJ. A mixed-method research on stress among government workers: Analysis using the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards. Psychology and Education: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 2023;8(8):1-1.


Barth SG, Criswell BA, Smith WM, Rushton GT. Frameworking how professional development interacts with teacher leaders’ outcome expectancies and school environment perceptions. International Journal of Leadership in Education. 2024:1-25. Available:https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13603124.2024.2307877?scroll=top&needAccess=true

Kilag OK, Uy F, Calledo MF, Diano Jr F, Morales Jr N, Abendan CF. Assessing the impact of principal's school leadership, school level, and effectiveness in educational institutions. International Multidisciplinary Journal of Research for Innovation, Sustainability, and Excellence (IMJRISE). 2024;1(1):73-82.


García-Closas M, Ahearn TU, Gaudet MM, Hurson AN, Balasubramanian JB, Choudhury PP, Almeida JS. Moving toward findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable practices in epidemiologic research. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2023;192(6):995-1005. Available:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0361368223000259

Ekowati D, Abbas A, Anwar A, Suhariadi F, Fahlevi M. Engagement and flexibility: An empirical discussion about consultative leadership intent for productivity from Pakistan. Cogent Business & Management. 2023;10(1):2196041.


Aboramadan M, Dahleez KA, Farao C. Inclusive leadership and extra-role behaviors in higher education: Does organizational learning mediate the relationship? International Journal of Educational Management. 2022;36(4):397-418. Available:https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJEM-06-2020-0290/full/html

Amora MV, Batan AQ, Caay MCB, Levardo KT, Palileo AG. Integrating technology in schools for teaching and learning: Basis for outcomes-based instructions.


Bernadine GGK. Challenges faced by teachers in the implementation of continuing professional teacher development (CPTD): Gauteng Province. In S. Dhunpath & M. Samuel (Eds.), Teacher education in the 21st century). IntechOpen. 2019:945-962. Available:https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/65929

Eaton L, Bridgman T, Cummings S. Advancing the democratization of work: A new intellectual history of transformational leadership theory. Leadership; 2024


Er E. The relationship between principal leadership and teacher practice: Exploring the mediating effect of teachers’ beliefs and professional learning. Educational Studies. 2024;50(2), 166-185.


Fazilla S, Nurdin Bukit S. Enhancing prospective teachers' professional competence: A project-based learning framework with the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework. Kurdish Studies. 2024;12(1).


García E, Weiss E. The role of early career supports, continuous professional development, and learning communities in the teacher shortage. The fifth report in 'The perfect storm in the teacher labor market' series. Economic Policy Institute; 2019. Available:https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED598210

Ghufron S, Fitriyah FK, Sodikin M, Saputra N, Amin SM, Muhimmah HA. Evaluating the impact of teachers’ personal and professional resources in elementary education on school-based human resource management: A case study in Indonesia. SAGE Open, 2024;14(1), 21582440241231049.


Ikpuri EO, Peter GO. Professional learning communities: A mechanism for enhancing teachers' professional agency; 2024. Available:https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Emmanuel-Ikpuri-2/publication/377383005_Professional_Learning_Communities_A_Mechanism_for_Enhancing_Teachers'_Professional_Agency/links/65a2b7cac77ed94047739ff1/Professional-Learning-Communities-A-Mechanism-for-Enhancing-Teachers-Professional-Agency.pdf

Kalim U, Bibi S. Assessing teacher competencies in public schools of Pakistan: A pathway for improving the effectiveness of professional development programs for teachers. SAGE Open. 2024;14(2),21582440241236060.


Kossek EE, Perrigino MB, Russo M, Morandin G. Missed connections between leadership theory and research. Leadership Quarterly, 2023;34(1):101601. Available:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S104898432100184X

Krammer SM, Peter F, Feldmann K. Leading and learning: A review of the influence of school leadership on teachers' professional learning and development. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2022; 118:103814.


Kuh GD, Jankowski NA. Assessment and accountability in the age of results: Considerations for higher education. New Directions for Higher Education. 2023;3 (1):59-71. Available:https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02750749.2022.1986872

Kustula T. Self-efficacy beliefs and teacher leadership practices: An empirical study. Journal of Educational Research. 2024;97 (2):93-104. Available:https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/00220574231124332

Lalonde,C, Roux-Dufort C. Challenges in teaching crisis management: Connecting theories, skills, and reflexivity. Journal of Management Education. 2013;37(5):651-673. Available:https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1052562912474894

Louws ML, Meirink JA, van Veen K. van Driel JH. Teachers' self-directed learning and teaching experience: What, how, and why teachers want to learn. Teaching and Teacher Education, 2017;66:171- 183.


Marin-Diaz CS, Gonzalez-Moreno CX, Aponte-Mayor G. Professional development for technology integration: Its effects on school leaders' competencies in the use of ICT. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. 2022;25(1):181-193. Available:https://www.jstor.org/stable/48548156

Montano J. Leadership styles and the promotion of teachers' continuous professional development in secondary schools in Nigeria. International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies. 2024;16(1):24-35.


Muthiani G, Ngware MW, Abuya BA. School leadership and teachers’ continuous professional development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 2022;50(4):557-575.


Nayyar N, Jaiswal V. Influencing factors of teachers’ professional learning and development: Insights from Indian school systems. Journal of Educational Research and Reviews. 2024;2(1):37-46.


Nguyen Q, Tran D. Leadership effectiveness and teachers’ professional development: Insights from primary schools in Vietnam. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2023;51(2):259-278.


Onguko B, Abdalla K. Impact of headteachers' instructional leadership on teachers’ professional learning in Kenya. Journal of Educational Management. 2024; 58(2):161-176. Available:https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1741143220955600

Ortiz D, Ruiz S. The role of school leadership in the implementation of educational reforms: Evidence from Mexican primary schools. Journal of Educational Change. 2023;24(1):89-106.


Payne R. The efficacy of different forms of school-based professional development in influencing teacher practice and student outcomes. Educational Researcher. 2023; 52(5):289-301.


Pecheone R, Chung RR. Evidence in teacher education: The performance assessment for California teachers (PACT). Journal of Teacher Education. 2006;57(1):22-36. Available:https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022487105283884

Reeves DB. Transforming professional development into student results. ASCD; 2010.


Ritzhaupt AD, Dawson K, Cavanaugh C. An investigation of factors influencing student use of technology in K-12 classrooms using path analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research. 2012; 46(3):229-254.


Rock D. SCARF: A brain-based model for collaborating with and influencing others. NeuroLeadership Journal. 2008;1(1):44-52. Available:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264374280_SCARF_A_brain-based_model_for_collaborating_with_and_influencing_others

Rong L, Xinyan L. Leadership behavior and professional learning community in China’s secondary schools. Asia Pacific Journal of Education. 2024;44(1):73-86. Available:https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02188791.2023.2341492

Schenke W, Admiraal W, De Jong L. Professional learning communities in Dutch schools: Relationships between activities, support, and reform intentions. Journal of Professional Capital and Community. 2020;5(2):144-158.


Scott S, Sutton RE. Emotions and change during professional development for teachers: A mixed-methods study. Journal of Educational Change. 2009;10(1):57-68. Available:https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10833-008-9075-4

Smith WM, Rushton GT. Teacher leadership and professional development: An exploration of contextual influences. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2024; 92:103062.


Stevenson H. Transformational leadership and teacher agency: Perspectives from the global south. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 2023;52(4): 497-514.


Takahashi S. Co-constructing efficacy: A “communities of practice” perspective on teachers’ efficacy beliefs. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2011;27(4):732- 741. Available:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0742051X11000253

Thoonen EE, Sleegers PJ, Oort FJ, Peetsma TT, Geijsel FP. How to improve teaching practices: The role of teacher motivation, organizational factors, and leadership practices. Educational Administration Quarterly. 2011;47(3):496-536. Available:https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0013161X11400185

Tschannen-Moran M, Hoy AW. Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 2001;17(7):783- 805. Available:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0742051X01000236

Uusiautti S, Määttä K. Significant trends in the development of Finnish teacher education programs (1860-2010). Education Policy Analysis Archives. 2013; 21:59. Available:https://epaa.asu.edu/index.php/epaa/article/view/1299

Van der Heijden HR, Geldens JJ, Beijaard D, Popeijus HL. Characteristics of teachers as change agents. Teachers and Teaching, 2015;21(6):681-699. Available:https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13540602.2015.1044324

Vangrieken K, Meredith C, Packer T, Kyndt E. Teacher communities as a context for professional development: A systematic review. Teaching and Teacher Education, 2017;61:47-59. Available:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0742051X16301496

Versland TM, Erickson JL. The role of principal leadership in developing teacher leaders: Voices from the field. Journal of Educational Administration. 2017;55(1):49-69. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JEA-05-2015-0038/full/html

Wood DR, McQuarrie F. Building professional learning communities in high schools: Challenges and promising practices. National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin. 1999;83(606):53-61.


Dagnew, Asrat. The Practice and Challenges of Distributed Leadership at Some Selected Primary Schcools of Debark District: Ethiopia. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science. 2017;20(3):1-10.


Oredein, Afolakemi O, Adekemi Felicia Opatunde. Decision-Making Skills and Public Senior Secondary Schools Principals’ Administrative Effectiveness in Oyo State, Nigeria. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2023; 20(4):32-44. Available:https://doi.org/10.9734/arjass/2023/v20i4455.

Pedder D, MacBeath J. Organisational learning approaches to school leadership and management: teachers' values and perceptions of practice. School effectiveness and school improvement. 2008;19(2):207-24.

Avalos B. Teacher professional development in teaching and teacher education over ten years. Teaching and teacher education. 2011;27(1):10- 20.