Open Access Original Research Article

External Interventions and Community Innovativeness to Cope with Changes in Ecosystem Services of the Okpara Dam in Northen Benin

Salomon Balogoun, Latifou Idrissou

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v24i130566

The Okpara dam in Northern Benin offers multiple ecosystem services (ESS) to the riparian communities living around. It is an important drinking water source for the populations of the largest nearby metropolis Parakou. Many development activities have been undertaken to increase its capacity to supply drinking water by the Benin national water Company (SONEB: Société National des Eaux du Bénin). These activities combined with climate change are drastically affecting the sustainability of ESS supply. This paper aims to analyse the determinants of changes in the provision of ESS and to assess the local innovations developed by local communities to adapt to these changes. Data collection consisted in interviewing 111 individuals in the nearby villages of the Okpara dam. It included farmers, fishermen, religious dignitaries, SONEB officials, and traditional leaders. The results show that the modernization work undertaken by SONEB has increased the capacity of the dam to supply drinking water to the Parakou’s population. On the other hand, they have deprived the local communities of many ESS such as cultural and religious spaces, entertainment and agricultural production areas. In addition to these development works, climate change and other anthropic actions are also cited as factors explaining the depletion of certain ESS around the dam. To limit the damage and safeguard agricultural production, local population have developed agricultural areas downstream of the dam with the creation of autonomous water points for market gardening. Fish farming areas have also been created for small-scale fishing. These innovations have helped not only to improve the availability of drinking water but also increase the income of farmers and fishermen and improve the social cohesion among the communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between the Adherence to National Competency-Based Standards and the Professional Profile of School Heads in Northern Samar, Philippines

Xavier M. Ultra

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 13-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v24i130567

A descriptive study sought to determine the school heads’ adherence to the national competency-based standards and its relationship to the professional profile of the school heads in the Division of Northern Samar was done. This study used the descriptive-correlational research design which the questionnaire was patterned from studies on leadership and National Competency-Based Standards for School Heads (NCBS-SH) TDNA tool. Elementary schools were proportionally sampled by district/municipality while secondary schools were proportionally sampled by legislative districts of the province of Northern Samar. The respondents answered a survey questionnaire developed from the standards of Department of Education. This study found out that most of the school heads have earned master’s degree, are principal’s test passers, had more than 10 years of administrative and supervisory experience and had limited number of exposures to trainings. All the indicators of leadership skills were very highly observed. On the test of relationship between the professional profile of the school heads and their adherence to National Competency-Based Standards, administrative and supervisory experience and NCBS-SH domains on school leadership, instructional leadership, HR management and professional development were found to be significantly correlated. Also, administrative, and supervisory trainings attended and NCBS-SH domains on school leadership, instructional leadership, HR management and professional development were found to be significantly correlated. Respondents’ leadership skills and NCBS-SH domains, leadership skills have significant correlation to all the NCBS-SH domains. From the test of relationship between the professional profile of the school heads and the school performance, only eligibility and administrative and supervisory experience are significantly correlated to SBM level of practice. The test of relationships between school heads’ adherence to national competency-based standards and school performance, the school leadership is significantly correlated to SBM level of practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of ICT in Provision of Information to Rural Women for Sustainable Development©

Ruth Iramwenya Andambi, Lelon Lydia Jebet

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 26-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v24i130568

Information and Communication Technologies are critical tools in disseminating of information for Socio-Economic Development. Every person globally strives to have access to this vital information. However most women in rural areas have limited access to this information. This study therefore was set to find out how ICTs could be used to empower rural women of Keiyo South Constituency, Elgeiyo/Marakwet County through provision of information for sustainable Development. The objectives of the study were to; assess the information needs for rural women; find out how use of ICT could influence socio-economic status of rural women and challenges in accessing this information for sustainable Development. The study was informed by Harris Info-Mobilization theory. The study adopted a qualitative research design. The target population was 3070 women in Keiyo South. Stratified sampling was used to divide the constituency into divisions and locations and purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to obtain 141 respondents. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedules supplemented by document review and observation and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study found that the rural women of Keiyo South has limited access to ICT Technology and infrastructure, which has affected negatively on their socio-economic and political status. Access to information was mainly through informal sources such as friends and neighbors; they need education and training to provide them with knowledge and skills for accessing ICT information, which can help them to attain sustainable Development. The study concluded that use of ICT has helped to reduce poverty through economic empowerment and has enabled the rural women to obtain new life skills. In addition, ICT has enabled them to participate in political election online. With relevant ICT infrastructure and policies in place, ICT could be used to improve the socio-economic status of rural women for sustainable development in Keiyo South. The study recommended that the County government of Elgeyo/Marakwet should empower rural women economically by providing them with information through ICT and by enacting policies that support development of ICT infrastructure and projects for rural women. Through these projects, the rural women could be trained to gain the knowledge and skills for searching and retrieving information through ICT. This knowledge could help them develop socio- Economic strategies for sustainable Development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adaptation between the School Context in the Francophone Educational Sub-System of General Education in Cameroon and the Learner's Entry into the World of Employment: School Guidance

Fopoussi Tuebue Jean Christophe

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 39-54
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v24i130569

The objective of this study is to examine the French-speaking sub-system of general education in Cameroon, with the aim of proposing a Cameroonian academic system now equipped with an orientation pedagogy capable of valuing the different local potentials that can suddenly accelerate the emergence of the country. To carry out this study, numerous investigations were made in the field. The plentiful results obtained have been carefully analyzed. The orientation of learners in Cameroon is not done on the basis of their real potential, but rather on the basis of foreign languages; these are German, Spanish, and Chinese. At different levels, we see an overload of learners with subjects which, instead of reinforcing them in what they would like to do in life, rather demotivate them. Learners finish their respective courses with a full head, without any skills. The informal sector is the only environment where they can earn on a daily basis. The practice of trades in this sector is responsible of many urban disorders observed today in the cities of the country. This urban disorder is almost always the precursor of many accidents, sometimes resulting in the death of men. For young people who did not have the courage to engage themselves in informal sector activities, crime, drug abuse, violence, homosexuality, the search of "sugar mummy and daddy", " gigolo habit ”, illegal immigration, prostitution, to name but a few, are the main routes out. The following path is proposed for the new orientation vision in Cameroon: Observation sub-cycle (first and second year), Orientation sub-cycle (third and fourth year artistic, third and fourth year literary, third and fourth year science), Specialization cycle (fifth year artistic, fifth year literary, fifth year science, sixth and seventh year artistic, sixth and seventh year literary, Sixth year applied sciences, sixth year fundamental sciences, seventh year applied science, seventh year fundamental sciences). The new vision of managing the French-speaking sub-system of general education in Cameroon highlights a new reality; in fact, from the orientation sub-cycle, the teaching units will be preparing the corresponding trades. Cameroon has many assets to succeed in this process.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Students' Mathematical Reasoning Ability with the Constructivism Approach through Mobile Learning System

Yusri Wahyuni, . Jamaris

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 55-60
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v24i130570

Aims: To analyze the mathematical reasoning ability of mathematics education students.

Study Design: Qualitative research with a descriptive approach.

Place and Duration of Study: The population of all 3rd-semester mathematics education students at Bung Hatta University who take geometry courses is 25 students.

Methodology: This research is qualitative research with a descriptive approach. Researchers directly measure the mathematical reasoning ability of students in the mathematics education study program. Judging from the research subjects, the population of all 3rd-semester mathematics education students at Bung Hatta University who took geometry courses was 25 students.

Results: From the analysis results, it was found that the achievement of mathematical reasoning abilities for indicators of students' ability to present mathematical statements orally, in writing, pictures, and diagrams indicated by question number 1 was 74% (Good Category). The indicators of mathematical manipulation ability shown in questions number 2 and 5 are 41% (Category Enough), and 42% (Category Enough). And the indicators of students' ability to conclude, compile evidence, provide comments, or evidence from several solutions shown by questions number 3 and 4 are 67% (Good Category) and 58% (Enough Category).

Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is to be able to determine the category of mathematical reasoning of the 3rd-semester students of the Bung Hatta University Mathematics Education Study Program.