Open Access Opinion Article

Comprehension View about Critical Thinking - Narrative Review

Andreea Buzduga, Liliana Rodrigues

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 15-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v23i130543

The critical thinking literature emphasizes the continuous need of understanding the meaning of a complex concept as critical thinking. Previous research provides multiple theoretical approaches on critical thinking, including different theoretical and operational definition, methods for developing critical thinking and measurements tools within formal educations. In this study, we focus on reviewing the main insights from previous studies with the specific aim of proposing a structured overview of how critical thinking can be defined, developed and measured according to multiple approaches (i.e., philosophical, psychological, educational). Results of this study showed the development of the critical thinking concept, consisting of a broad perspective of multiple approaches of critical thinking. This further enables an overview of critical thinking particularities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Strategy in History Class to Enhance Critical Thinking Skill of 8th Standard Students

Sangay Tshewang, Rinchen Wangdi

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v23i130542

This action research was conducted in Thimyul Lower Secondary School in Lhuentse, particularly for class VIII students in History classes. It was done with the action research question, “how can the integration of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) strategy in History subject enhances the critical thinking skill of the students?” The very school has encountered the issue of low critical thinking skill resulting in the cases of low academic performance and less interest in the classroom learning of History subject. Researchers’ surveys and examinations record of the school showed the deteriorating ranks of history subject after failing to obtain good marks from the higher order thinking skill. So, the purpose of this action research is to enhance the critical thinking skill by incorporating Problem Based Learning (PBL) strategy in teaching the history lesson. This intervention educational action research was done with descriptive research with focused on the constructivism research paradigm. It engaged mix method research methodology and used quantitative method by employing the data from class test and survey questionnaire. To support the authenticity of the quantitative data, researchers employed qualitative method by using researchers’ observation on the students’ progress and participants’ feedback on the intervention programs. Case studies, debates and pictorial presentations were used as the main intervention program to integrate the PBL strategy while teaching the history lesson. Stratified and voluntary sampling method were deployed for the collection of data from the student-participants. By this action research, implementation of the PBL strategy in the history lesson has witnessed radical improvement in critical thinking skill of the students. Thus, this action research definitely proved that PBL strategy is the effective method for learning history lesson to improve the critical thinking skill of the students.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Motivation on Teacher Retention in Public Senior High Schools: The Case of Bekwai Municipality of Ghana

Kennedy Nyeseh Ofori

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 28-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v23i130544

Attrition of teachers from public schools in Ghana is on the ascendency. The study aimed at examining the effect motivation has on teacher retention in public Senior High Schools (SHS) in the Bekwai Municipality of Ghana. The study adopted the explanatory research design using a quantitative approach. The quota and simple random sampling procedures were employed to select 370 respondents. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0. The results revealed that prompt payment of monthly salary (mean=4.61) was the most motivating package with a positive effect on teacher retention, whereas training opportunities (mean=2.38) and allowance for car maintenance (mean=2.31) had the least effect. The study recommends among others that governments consider paying teachers monthly salaries promptly and design a more comprehensive and competitive motivation package for them.

Open Access Original Research Article

School Environmental Factors Influencing Female Pupils Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Iringa Municipality

Chesco Aloyce Motto

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 40-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v23i130546

This study intended to explore the school environmental factors influencing female pupils’ academic performance in public primary schools at Iringa Municipality. A cross-sectional study design was used where structured questionnaire using open and closed ended questionnaire as well as interviews to participants were used to collect primary information from 123 girls’ pupils and 36 key informants from seven selected public primary schools. Data analysis was done through descriptive statistics (SPSS). The study findings revealed that harsh environmental factors contributing to poor academic performance through sexual harassment by pest teachers, longer distance of a female pupils form schools that affect pupils attendance and drop out, Shortage of teaching and learning resources as well as facilities i.e. text books, library and shortage of latrines  while teaching and learning it is difficult for them to deriver pedagogical principal of teaching following large class size 68-80, and the bias attitude of the teacher towards subject matter that girls are always do performs poor in science subjects than boys. Finally, the study recommends that the government should build hostels for standard six and seven female pupils for solving the issue of long distance and drop out. Good and enough latrines should be built for girls and boys. Teachers should be well trained in order to handle girls well and also government should organize regular workshops for teachers. Either girls pupils should all the time helped by both male and female teachers in their problems and academic matters openly to avoid bias and mistrust among male teachers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study the Relationship between Selective Characteristics of Farmers and Their Practicing Coping Strategies towards Household Food Security during Flood Period

M. E. Haque, M. N. Islam, M. A. Majid, M. R. Islam, M. Y. Uddin, M. J. Alam, M. A. Rahman, M. M. Haque, J. Tasnim, M. A. Rahman

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 49-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v23i130547

A study was carried out at flood affected reverine villages of three upazilas (small administrative unit) under Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during September, 2011 to May, 2012 to explore the relationship, contribution and direct–indirect effect between personal attributes and their coping strategies towards household food security practiced by the farmers during flood. Data were collected from randomly selected respondents and analyzed through both the qualitative and quantitative techniques by using a statistical program. Out of 18 personal, economic, social and psychological characteristics of the farmers, the personal education, housing condition, annual income, annual expenditure, savings, organizational participation, participation in IGAs, cosmopoliteness, environmental awareness, knowledge on flood coping mechanisms and household food security had positive but both credit received and utilization of received credit had negative. In addition, age, family size, training received, risk orientation and involvement in safety net programs are insignificant with coping strategies towards household food security during flood period.