Open Access Short Research Article

How Can We Improve the Quality of the Interactive Classroom Learning Environment in Class VI Students?

Ugyen Choeda, Tshering Chophel

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 53-64
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v18i330445

This research is basically focused on how to improve classroom interaction in Bhutanese classroom. Classroom Interaction is a practice that enhances the development of the two very important language skills which are speaking and listening among the learners. This device helps the learners to be competent enough to think critically and share their views among their peers. It is based on the notion that classroom interaction plays vital role in enhancing effective teaching and learning, improve academic performance, moreover to make learning atmosphere lively. Constructive teaching method, use of technology in the classroom, assessment and evaluation are some of the methods used to see the findings of the study.  There was a time when the traditional approach of teaching was adopted by most of the teachers, where the learner used to be dependent only on the lecture delivered by the teacher. They were not exposed to enough practice of speaking on their own and hence the interaction among the students in the classroom was almost absent. But as the education system changed with time so have the teaching methods. The education system now demands more student interaction rather than just listening to the instructor. Hence Classroom Interaction is very essential in today’s education system. There have been some researches done in the context of Bhutan. Nevertheless, on order to contextualize the discussion to the Bhutanese audience, the author has reviewed a few research studies done in the context of particular school.

Classroom Interaction is a practice that enhances the development of the two very important language skills which are speaking and listening among the learners. This device helps the learners to be competent enough to think critically and share their views among their peers.

Interaction is needed in the classroom activity. It helps the teaching and learning process run smoothly and it can increase learners' communication. It tells how the students have interaction among them and teacher even with the whole class. This study aims to give the teacher some suggestions to achieve classroom interaction in the teaching and learning process. It offers some strategies to improve the interaction in the classroom. Several studies show that classroom interaction is important in the teaching-learning process. Some studies show that the students' interaction happens in the classroom. By using classroom interaction, the students are more active in the learning process. The result of the study concludes that classroom interaction has an important role in the teaching and learning process.

The purpose of this study is how to improve the quality of interactive classroom learning for the student’s academic achievement and learning outcomes. The teachers play an important role in imparting a student’s learning and creating quality classroom interaction. An interactive classroom learning environment is considered as one of the effective methods of learning which help the students learning process. Teachers’ main role is to design and plan his/her lesson in such way that students love sharing their learning with other because all learning development takes place in classrooms. As a teacher, we must carefully examine all the factors in mind which will help to enhance the students learning outcome. A warm and homely classroom environment improves academic performance, learning outcome, and a sense of pride and belonging of the students and as well the teachers. 

“A good teacher is like a candle, it consumes itself to light the way for others”. Mustafa Kamal Ataturk. A Teacher plays a very important role and depending upon the teacher for student learning and academic achievement. As a teacher, teaching and learning is an important process, good teaching methods, strategicActive involvement in learning, Interaction techniques, and a conducive environment will help students to learn things more rapidly. There was a time when the traditional approach of teaching was adopted by most of the teachers, where the learner used to be dependent only on the lecture delivered by the teacher. They were not exposed to enough practice of speaking on their own and hence the interaction among the students in the classroom was almost absent. But as the education system changed with time so have the teaching methods. The education system now demands more student interaction rather than just listening to the instructor. Hence Classroom Interaction is very essential in today’s education system.

This study was carried out with class VI students and teachers of Balam/Ngatshang primary schools under the Mongar district. The research is design for a qualitative research approach. Participants will consist of 10 students and 6 teachers. Qualitative data will be collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and descriptive. The interviews will be video record and transcribe. Data collected will be analyzed and present in descriptive form. 

Open Access Policy Article

Youth Employment Creation Factors in the EA Countries Data and Policy Analysis

Semboja Haji Hatibu, Hafidh Ali Hafidh

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 13-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v18i330442

This policy research paper analyses employability factors contributing to youth unemployment and also provides working recommendations for further dialogue and engagement on youth employability in the EA countries. The data and policy analyses are based on the theory of 4-Es as propounded by International Labour Organization and Youth Employment Network literature. The field research survey, focus group discussion, combined observational and consultations with key informants were major research methods used in collecting secondary and primary data and other information. Data analysis used non-parametric methods, mainly frequency, and cross tabulations.

The study found that the governments and private sectors have not created adequate, remunerative and sustainable job opportunities to match with increasing labour force within the country through effective utilization of natural resources available and improvement of production technology within the region. Diversification of the economy is limited. The government fiscal policies and other systems have not been effective in reducing unemployment for both youths with ought and with disability.

The paper recommends optimal employment creation conditions. The proposed implementation strategies include creation of pro-economic growth job opportunities; diversification of the economy; creation of the environment conducive for fiscal policies adjustment; increasing participation of youth with disabilities in the job planning process and strengthening the institutional capacities.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 Risks and Effects on the Women, Children and Resource-Dependent Communities in the Case of Extractive Industry 2020 in Tanzania

Semboja Haji Hatibu Haji

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v18i230441

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a shared global socio-economic struggle against an invisible public health enemy. Not only women, children and resource-dependent communities are contracting COVID-19, but also they are among the most severely impacted socio-economic entities. The COVID-19 pandemic is profoundly affecting the everyday lives of women, child laborers and resource-dependent communities. Their physical and mental health, their social and the economic circumstances are also adversely affected. Social distancing requirements, business closures and travel restrictions associated with COVID-19 have all led to a drop in socio-economic activities, the losses of incomes and livelihoods, and increased household poverty. The paper assesses the level of risks for women, children and resource-dependent communities in the COVID-19 situation in the extractive sector in Tanzania. This descriptive paper uses results of the HR field research survey of 2020 that included stakeholders’ workshop, intensive desk study or literature review, field research surveys, data management and policy analysis.

The viruses that cause COVID-19 have high health risks of effecting and affecting people of all ages, gender, races and nations. The levels of risks for women violence, child and youth labour unemployment and resource-dependent communities are high.

The paper recommends that the government and all extractive sector companies should ensure there is no child labour and should enhance youth employment. It is also recommended that children be protected from all possible health hazards. Extractive industries have to create employment opportunities for both male and female youths. All the extractive sector firms have to embark on sustainable Corporate Social Responsibility strategies so as to minimize COVID-19 risks to all resource-dependent communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Effectiveness Study on Policy Level Training Course: A Case from Bangladesh Public Administration Training Centre, Bangladesh

Md. Zohurul Islam, Shamim Hosen

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 41-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v18i330444

The civil servants are treated as the principal-agent of the government for providing service and coordinating among different segments of society; it is better to provide appropriate training to them. Bangladesh public administration training centre (bpatc) is providing capacity enhancement training for the civil servants. The study aims attempt: to identify the effectiveness of the existing curriculum of the policy level courses for senior civil servants; to examine training methods whether those are relevant for curriculum delivery as need-based or not, if so then how much; to identify some strong and weak points as a means of 'center of excellence' of bangladesh public administration training centre (bpatc) and to visualize managerial implications and provide policy suggestions for ensuring the effectiveness of policy level training courses for the senior civil servants of bangladesh. This study adopted semi-structured questionnaires developed by the evaluation department of bpatc are assessed and presented in this report to obtain study objectives. Analyzing results found that in training modules, training methods, contents, some academic, and non-academic components at a satisfactory level. Results also provide some managerial implications for the future development of training courses and training content development. Bpatc organizes several training courses, but this study has given focused only on senior staff course (ssc). Finally, the study findings have implications to enrich the training curriculum development of policy-level courses and training management for the senior officials as well.

Open Access Review Article

The Rhetoric of Foreign Aid and the Need for International Trade: Challenges and Possibilities for Developing Nations. A Critical Perspective

Umaru Tsaku Samuel

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 30-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v18i330443

This paper attempts to critically examine foreign aids by donor nations and agencies to the developing nations, and at the same time, examine international trade to show that the latter is better off. The study utilized dependency theory of underdevelopment to analyze why foreign aids have not being a spring board for development in developing nations. The paper found out that foreign aids over the years have not engendered development because of the conditionalities attached to such aids which come in the form of grants, loans, assistance etc. These further keep developing nations down as it is difficult to find examples of unequivocal success from receipt of official foreign aids. The reasons are not far-fetched. Since the 1940’s when official foreign aids started flowing, the motive seems to satisfy the donor interests and has little or nothing  to do with egalitarian development and poverty reduction in developing nations. In view of this, international trade is far better to the developing nations, and same should be encouraged despite their disadvantaged position in global capitalist equation. The paper concluded that despite the fact that globalization and neo-liberalism favour the owners of big Corporations, mostly in advanced countries of the world, developing countries can still make some gains from international trade by looking inwards, rather than relying on foreign aids which have not been contributing in alleviating poverty and inequalities, but used to reward military and political allies and to promote private enterprise and unequal free trade.