Open Access Opinion Article

Issues with Innovative Humanity Programs: Possible Solutions for Initiating Them at Applied Higher Education Institutions

Tsai-Fa Yen, Xiaoqin Yu, Jiawei Shao

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 11-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v17i230416

The study deals with the issues with innovative humanity programs and tries to draw some possible solutions for initiating them at applied higher education institutions. It focuses on the problems while the construction and development of a department needs to transform itself from traditional operation type to innovative ones. Our study employees the literature review method to analyze the construction of applied higher education institution. Findings show that the talent training program, the evaluation system, and the organizational pattern would be the current problems applied higher education institutions met. Furthermore, the study indicates that the goals of the construction to the department, the evaluation system, and the development of the teachers are the possible solutions to the problems. Specifically, the managers of the applied higher education institutions should focus more on the integration and utilization of the resources, including cross-department, cross-school, cross-industry, integration, and collaborative development mechanism is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Curricula and Employability: An Empirical Study on Tertiary Level Students of Bangladesh

Md. Ashraful Islam Khan, Md. Abid Hassan Mojkury

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v17i230415

Aim: The continuous innovation of information technologies accelerates the global economic development. The recent development of artificial intelligence and machine learning theory are not only through a big challenge to the graduates to enter to the job market but also all the stakeholders of entire knowledge economy to stay in the right track for better future. To develop graduates' professionalism with strong foundation of adequate skills are pivotal to meet the future challenges of fourth industrial revolution and artificial intelligence. The aim of the study is to assess the perception and attitude of graduate students regarding future employability in the context of their curriculum.

Data from 750 tertiary level students are collected purposively by direct interview method. A questionnaire is designed based the study aim with suitable well-structured closed ended questions.

Methodology: A five-point Likert scale is considered to measure the opinion and attitude towards future employability and curricula. Descriptive statistical techniques are used for basic comparisons while Chi-square test is appointed to assess the significance of different determinants to the graduates opinions and attitudes.

Results: We found graduates average age 22.39 years with small standard deviation 1.55. Most of the respondents (66.5%) belonging to bellow average income group. A clear educational migration observed in secondary to higher secondary education level. Very unexpected response observed when we asked students regarding their curricula for employability. 9.33% respondents think that the curricula is not important and 35.2% think curricula as least important. Significant impact of students gender, age and place of higher secondary level education place observed on their opinion regarding curricula for future employability.

Conclusion: The growing literature on graduate employability suggest that the role of tertiary level educational institutions, the curricula planners and the policy makers fostering graduate employability over the globe. This article endows with a comprehensive analysis of graduates' attitude towards employability. We hope that this study will contribute to promote graduate employability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Contributing to Poor Academic Performance of Students in Kongo Senior High School in the Kongo District

Matthew Kojo Namale, Joshua-Luther Ndoye Upoalkpajor, Cornelia Aganazure Ayambire

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 16-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v17i230417

The study investigated the factors influencing low academic performance of Kongo Senior High School Students in the Kongo District in the Upper East District. The Objectives of the study were to: identify the teacher factors that contribute to the low academic performance of students in Kongo Senior High School, identify how students’ attitude contribute to low academic achievement and indicate how school physical facilities contribute to low academic performance of students. The study also indicated the difference in perception between teachers and students with regard to ways teachers contribute to low academic achievement of students, indicate the difference in perception between teachers and students with regard to how school physical facilities contribute to low academic performance of students and indicate the perception between teachers and students about how students’ attitude contribute to low academic performance. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A self-designed questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of .73 was used to gather data from a sample of 154 respondents. Purposive sampling method was used to select the school. Simple random sampling method was used to select student participants while convenient sampling method was used to select teachers for the study. The study revealed that teachers did not give feedback regularly to students. It was also found that students were not active in lesson. The study showed that the school did not have enough classroom furniture to to aid teaching and learning. Therefore, it was suggested that teachers should regularly give feedback on students’ work for them to know how they are doing in their subjects. It was also recommended that stakeholders of education should provide enough furniture for the school.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Eight-Variable Karnaugh Maps to Unravel Hidden Technicalities in Qualitative Comparative Analysis

Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi, Raid Salih Badawi

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 26-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v17i230418

We use a regular and modular eight-variable Karnaugh map to reveal some technical details of Boolean minimization usually employed in solving problems of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). We utilize as a large running example a prominent eight-variable political-science problem of sparse diversity (involving a partially-defined Boolean function (PDBF), that is dominantly unspecified). We recover the published solution of this problem, showing that it is merely one candidate solution among a set of many equally-likely competitive solutions. We immediately obtain one of these rival solutions, that looks better than the published solution in two aspects, namely: (a) it is based on a smaller minimal set of supporting variables, and (b) it provides a more compact Boolean formula. However, we refrain from labelling our solution as a better one, but instead we stress that it is simply un-comparable with the published solution. The comparison between any two rival solutions should be context-specific and not tool-specific. In fact, the Boolean minimization technique, borrowed from the area of digital design, cannot be used as is in QCA context. A more suitable paradigm for QCA problems is to identify all minimal sets of supporting variables (possibly via integer programming), and then obtain all irredundant disjunctive forms (IDFs) for each of these sets. Such a paradigm stresses inherent ambiguity, and does not seem appealing as the QCA one, which usually provides a decisive answer (irrespective of whether it is justified or not).The problem studied herein is shown to have at least four distinct minimal sets of supporting variables with various cardinalities. Each of the corresponding functions does not have any non-essential prime implicants, and hence each enjoys the desirable feature of having a single IDF that is both a unique minimal sum and the complete sum. Moreover, each of them is unate as it is expressible in terms of un-complemented literals only. Political scientists are invited to investigate the meanings of the (so far) abstract formulas we obtained, and to devise some context-specific tool to assess and compare them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chilean Educational Reform (2014-2018) and its Impact on Higher Education System

José Manuel Morales Valdés

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 43-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2021/v17i230419

During the second term of the President Michelle Bachelet (2014-2018), a transversal educational reform was carried out. To tertiary education its main purpose was to provide free tuition for higher education institutions (HEIs): Universities, Technical Training Centers (CFT) and Professional Institutes (IP). In that context, this paper analyzes the impact of this educational reform as it pertains to the Chilean system of higher education, with special focus on the implementation of free tuition as a new way to transfer resources from the State to HEIs.

The methods used is the documental analysis of different legal texts, as Acts and Budget Acts. They are analyzing to identify manifestations of governmental rationality, identifying  the language-in-use or its performative dimension.

The analysis considers political variables and how they influenced the process. Its focus is to see legal and institutional changes along with public budget and the impact of HEIs enrolment. The results indicate that despite the significant transformations carried out in the sphere of higher education, the reform could not achieve a significant change in the relationship between the State and HEIs due to the political dispute that arose in the process, thus achieving mixed results.

Chilean higher education provides an interesting case study which can serve as reference for educational debates in other countries.