Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Principal Leadership in Preventing COVID-19 Transmission at SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Karang Tengah Buay Madang Timur Indonesia

Wahid Hasim, Enung Hasanah

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2020/v11i130279

Aims: The purpose of this study was to explore (1) the role of the principal's leadership (2) the steps for decision-making by the principal (3) the efforts of the principal in preventing transmission of the COVID-19 virus in SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Karang Tengah Buay Madang Timur, Indonesia

Study Design: This study uses a qualitative approach with descriptive methods.

Place and Duration of Study: Research at SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Karang Tengah on   March 2020-May 2020.

Methodology: The data collection technique is doing through interviews, observation, and documentation. The research subjects were the principal and several students.

Results: The results of this study indicate that (1) the role of the principal in decision making is included in managerial competence. (2) the steps for decision making by the principal, namely (a) problem identification, (b) making alternative solutions; (c) choosing a solution; (d) implementing and evaluating solutions. (3) the efforts of the principal in preventing the transmission of the Covid-19 virus in the school environment, namely by eliminating face-to-face learning and learning replaced by online education or Learning From Home.  Schools also spray all classrooms and school environments; the principal makes rules for all school members to comply with health protocols according to the decision of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia Number Hk.01.07 / Menkes / 382/2020 regarding health protocols always to use masks, wash hands and keep a distance from all school members. At the time of collecting students, assignments are divided into several waves so that students do not crowd at school.

Conclusion: The principal acts as a manager at the school level. In decision making at the school level, a manager must reason in determining the decisions to be made. To prevent transmission of COVID-19, the principal adheres to the health protocol according to the decision of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia Number Hk.01.07 / Menkes / 382/2020 during school activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ragging and Its Impacts on the English Language Use of the First Year Undergraduate Community: Sri Lankan Perspective

A. M. M. Navaz

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2020/v11i130280

Ragging is a form of teasing introduced into Sri Lankan universities with an alleged aim of assimilating new students to the university culture. The origin of ragging is not known and over the years ragging has become a form of violent action and bullying, which harms junior students physically as well as mentally. It is generally accepted that classroom interaction would help develop students’ English language proficiency, especially speaking skills. Among some of the reasons for students not to involve in interaction with lecturers, ragging (hazing) in universities seems to play a significant role.

The study focused on the effects of ragging on students’ participation in language classes and their involvement in classroom discussions with lecturers, especially in the English medium content classes. Classroom discussion in the English medium classes is believed to be effective in improving the comprehension of content matters while offering a platform to develop language skills as well. Data were collected through focus group discussions and personal interviews with students and the staff of the university. The study revealed that multi-faceted sub-set of factors influenced students' behaviour in class. Students’ perception and justification of the said behaviour affect classroom interaction. Among the significant sub-set of factors, culturally embedded behavioural patterns perpetuated by senior students that come in the form of ragging seem to restrict the classroom interaction of the students in English. The study stresses the importance of examining the influence of culturally embedded behavioural factors on classroom interaction of the undergraduate community.

Open Access Original Research Article

What Makes Employees Productive and Have High Performance? Human Capital Investment in Universities

Fitri Nurmahmudah, Eka Cahya Sari Putra

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 21-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2020/v11i130281

The study describes the evaluation results concerning the improvement of the education levels among the employees of a university in Indonesia by making an investment in education. The study is aimed at investigating the employees’ productivity and performance after making an investment in education. This study with evaluation method using discrepancy model. The sample of the study consisted of 255  non-academic university employees. Data were collected by way of a questionnaire on Guttmann scale. The questionnaire was validated by using logical and empirical validation by a Pearson correlation technique and reliability by KR-20 technique. The data analysis with descriptive. To calculate the capital human investment, the human capital investment formula was used for finding payback period, benefit/cost ration, return-on-investment, net-present-value, and internal-rate-of-return. The results of the study showed that the employees who made human capital investment in education were able to increase their productivity and performance as their insights, knowledge, and skills improved. The research findings were able to give insights to leaders in high-level institutions or government institutions that investing in education is truly essential, needs more attention, and needs to be done by employees.

Open Access Original Research Article

Job Design and Sustainability of Tertiary Institutions in South East, Nigeria

Onwuchekwa, Faith Chidi, Okoli, Chibuokem Helen, Ifeanyi, Titus Tochukwu

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2020/v11i130282

Tertiary institutions in southeast Nigeria have in the past been bedeviled with the challenge of achieving optimal performance as a result of seemingly poor job structure as exemplified by low skill variety and poor task identity which has lead to various industrial actions. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between job design and sustainability of tertiary institutions in South East, Nigeria. The study was anchored on Hackman and Oldham's (1975) Job Characteristics Model (JCM). The population of the study consisted of 9240 academic and non-academic staff of six tertiary institutions in South East, Nigeria. Taro Yamane formula was used to determine the sample size of 383. Hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 5% significance level. The findings confirmed that there was a significant correlation between skill variety and employee empowerment and between task identity and workplace flexibility. It was therefore recommended among others, that managers of tertiary institutions in the South-East should take a proactive role in designing jobs that take care of the main job characteristics in the institutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kenya Education Management Institute’s Capacity Building Programme and Public Primary School Head Teachers’ Competencies in Teacher Supervision in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

Josephine G. Ongori, Kisilu Kitainge, Lydia Kipkoech

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 46-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2020/v11i130283

Aims: Education is the foundation and pillar of life. The study assessed the influence of Kenya Education Management Institute (KEMI’s) capacity building programme on head teachers' competencies in teacher supervision in public primary schools in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya.

Study Design: The study adopted a descriptive survey research design.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Uasin Gishu County of North Rift region between January and March 2018.

Methodology: It targeted six Sub-County Education Officers and 471 head teachers in public primary schools in the County. Simple random sampling was used to select 30% (141) of the public primary schools proportionately from each of the six sub-counties in the County. All the head teachers of the public primary schools selected participated in the study. Data was also collected from all the six Sub-County Directors of Education of Moiben, Wareng, Turbo, Kapseret, Ainabkoi and Soy. Data was collected using interviews and questionnaire. Data analysis using descriptive statistics was computed with frequencies, percentages, means, medians and standard deviations. The findings were then presented using, tables, charts and graphs.

Results: Out of the 132 Head teachers, the research results indicated that there was a strong positive correlation between KEMI’s capacity building programme and head teachers’ competencies in teacher supervision, r (132) = 0.555, P = .05. KEMI should use the information from this study to organize teacher training programmes to improve their schools and put in place strategies to help enhance management practices in schools and ultimately the student academic achievement. The findings of the study may be importance to Kenya Education Management Institute (KEMI) in tailoring their training needs of head teachers to enhance professional development and leadership in schools.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that KEMI capacity building program had enhanced head teachers’ competence in monitoring teacher’s performance in class and outside class, and helped them in cultivating good relationship with the teachers and building motivating climate to enhance teamwork among teachers. Further, the findings also indicates that KEMI capacity building program had helped them in appraising teacher’s performance objectively and helped them in providing teacher’s opportunity for professional growth, proper delegation of duties and it had enhanced the recommendation of teachers for upward mobility.