Open Access Short Research Article

Expropriation and Valuation of Agricultural Lands

Cengiz Kurt, Seda Hatice Kurt

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 12-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2020/v8i230217

Although the right to property is a constitutional right, the most common administrative process that terminates it is expropriation. The first condition that gives legal validity and legitimacy for the expropriation process to terminate the right to property is public benefit; The second condition is to determine the real value of the expropriated real estate and to pay this amount to the property owner in a reasonable time. Protection of the right to property can only be ensured if the fair value of the real property is determined. It is essential for the administrations to apply the procurement procedure first in expropriation. The determination of the purchase value is provided by the valuation commission formed by the administration. The valuation commissions should be based on the income to be obtained from the lands in accordance with the Expropriation Law No. 2942 in determining the land expropriation values. As a result of the fact that the valuation commissions do not include objective criteria in the valuation method with the income method, the real and fair value of the real estate cannot be reached and there is no agreement between the parties. It is important that members of the valuation commission are objective and knowledgeable in this regard. In this study, the principles regarding the application of the income method in determining the land expropriation values by the valuation commissions of the administration were examined and some suggestions were brought.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multi-dimensional Schoolings: An Utmost Incentive for Social Stratification in a Society (An Analytical Study of Multi Curriculums Taught in Different Educational Institutions in Pakistan)

Mumtaz Ahmed Jasvi

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2020/v8i230216

An educational institution has a significant role in society. For children's schooling, a school, its environment, teachers and curriculum hold a valuable position. Pre, Primary and secondary levels of school curriculums, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities are more valuable in one’s conceptual growth. In Pakistan, multi types of curriculums are being taught in different educational institutions. Some institutions are under state supervision and on the private level, some are under international education systems, some educational institutions are under religious sects, some schools have mixed type of curriculum; religious and international. All these institutions, train their students according to their educational aims and goals. In a single society, multi types of curriculums and objectives mean the preparation of students having different schoolings, mental approaches and different educational destinations. Their preferences, social directions, heroes, struggles, activities and even cultural norms (materialistic and non-materialistic) become different. So there is a need to highlight the impacts of different schoolings by different educational institutions in Pakistan. The main objective of this study is to elaborate on the cause of social stratification due to different educational curricular activities and schoolings. The research methodology of this paper was qualitative and views of some teachers and experts were quoted at the end.

Open Access Original Research Article

Follow up Survey of 2015-2017 Master’s Graduates of Comparative Education Program in Zhejiang Normal University

Antony Zakaria Fute, Wan Xiu-Lan

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 21-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2020/v8i230218

The researcher conducted a survey study of 28 international graduate students of Comparative Education (Master students) who were enrolled in the program from September 2015 to July 2017 in Zhejiang Normal University (ZJNU). With the application and admission procedures in ZJNU, 25% rated the application procedure as A-Excellent and majority of them (45%) rated as B-Very good, followed by another 25% who rated it as C-Good. 5% rated the application procedure to Join ZJNU as D-Not good. Their concerns are very well narrated in this paper. One of the key findings from the survey is that graduates appreciated universities’ contribution to them and the great role played by intelligent supervisors in Zhejiang Normal University (ZJNU), the friendly environment which were always there between supervisors and students, which made these international students feel like they were not in the foreign countries. Most of the supervisors played extra ordinary roles as they acted like their biological parents by taking their students into various places where they learnt a lot of things they couldn’t have learnt. However, few students expressed the challenges faced on the first days after their arrival. With the challenge of language and unfamiliarity of the environment, these students were stuck in their rooms without knowing where they could exchange their money and buy food. However even when they found the place to exchange money, language was still a problem to them. Concerning the impacts of the program, out of 20 graduate students who responded to the questionnaire, 85% are employed and the remaining 15% are not yet employed. Among those who are already employed, 82.4% are in full time job while only 17.6% are working as part time. 60% of these employed graduates got their employment before attending the program of Comparative education at Zhejiang Normal University (ZJNU), while 35% got their current employment after attending the program and only 5% got the employment offer while attending the program at ZJNU.

The researcher conducted a survey study of 28 international graduate students of Comparative Education (Master students) who were enrolled in the program from September 2015 to July 2017 in Zhejiang Normal University (ZJNU). With the application and admission procedures in ZJNU, 25% rated the application procedure as A-Excellent and majority of them (45%) rated as B-Very good, followed by another 25% who rated it as C-Good. 5% rated the application procedure to Join ZJNU as D-Not good. Their concerns are very well narrated in this paper. One of the key findings from the survey is that graduates appreciated universities’ contribution to them and the great role played by intelligent supervisors in Zhejiang Normal University (ZJNU), the friendly environment which were always there between supervisors and students, which made these international students feel like they were not in the foreign countries. Most of the supervisors played extra ordinary roles as they acted like their biological parents by taking their students into various places where they learnt a lot of things they couldn’t have learnt. However, few students expressed the challenges faced on the first days after their arrival. With the challenge of language and unfamiliarity of the environment, these students were stuck in their rooms without knowing where they could exchange their money and buy food. However even when they found the place to exchange money, language was still a problem to them. Concerning the impacts of the program, out of 20 graduate students who responded to the questionnaire, 85% are employed and the remaining 15% are not yet employed. Among those who are already employed, 82.4% are in full time job while only 17.6% are working as part time. 60% of these employed graduates got their employment before attending the program of Comparative education at Zhejiang Normal University (ZJNU), while 35% got their current employment after attending the program and only 5% got the employment offer while attending the program at ZJNU.

Open Access Original Research Article

Livelihood Status of the People Living in Unified Enclaves (Chitmahal) of Bangladesh

A. K. M. Zakaria, M. A. Mamun, M. A. Majid, R. Sultana

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2020/v8i230220

The study was under take to determine and describe the general characteristic of respondents, to explore present livelihood status of unified enclaves people and to identify problems faced by them. The study was conducted at different unified enclaves’ areas of Lalmonirhat, Kurigram, Panchagarh and Nilphamari district during December 2016-June 2017. A total 200 respondents were randomly selected from unified enclave areas for the study 50 from each district. Thirty two percent residents live in straw and mud wall houses and side walls are developed either by tin or by bamboo or other low cost materials and poor families (29%) have walls made by jute sticks. Agriculture is the main source of livelihoods in these areas (80%) including agricultural day labour. Non-farm activities (20%) are mainly limited to shop keeping or trading, rickshaw van pulling. No formal educational institute sponsored by government or private sector was found in unified enclave areas but recently people in enclave areas have built new structures with signboard on their lands by own finances with the hope that their relatives and peers will get jobs if the government approves the scheme. There is no community clinic or primary healthcare facility in the unified enclave areas. Majority of the respondents (76%) take treatment from village doctor and Kobiraj followed by upazilla health care centre (13%) and 5% from community clinic. Ninety two percent birth deliveries had been attended by relatives or midwives at home. Nearly 92% girls were married before age of 18 years. The study reveals that 88% respondents were suffering from dowry but there is no eve-teasing in the unified enclaves due to their strong family and social bondage. Insufficient irrigation facilities and quality agricultural inputs, lack of training and lack of marketing facilities of agricultural products is the major problems of their livelihoods. Insufficient support and lack of training in agriculture, livestock and fisheries, lack of healthcare centre, educational institution, poor road transportation facilities, and insufficient loan facilities of agriculture is the major problems of unified enclaves. To improve the condition of lives of people in unified enclaves, need to ensure quality agricultural inputs and irrigation facilities, agricultural product marketing facilities, training on modern farming and agricultural credits with lower interest rate.  Group based or community based fish, poultry or cattle farming might be beneficial for landless people. Low cost capital is needed to establish micro or small business enterprise. To improve the condition of lives of people in unified enclaves, different government agencies have taken various initiatives. But government programmes will not be enough to meet various needs of people of unified enclaves. Intervention from private sector would address various development needs there.

Open Access Original Research Article

System for Evidence of Corruption Criminal Act in Indonesia

Herdianto H. R. Balo, Fence M. Wantu, Lusiana Margareth Tijow

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 46-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2020/v8i230222

This study analyzed the system of evidence of corruption related to evidence and the quantity of evidence in cases of corruption. The researchers used a descriptive qualitative approach that grouped and selected data obtained from field research according to its quality and truth, then related to theories, principles and legal norms obtained from library studies. The data was analyzed qualitatively by processing existing legal materials to answer the main research problem. The results of the study stated that the evidence in the crimes act of corruption consisted of at least two, namely negative and absolute (pure proof). In this negative verification, the construction of article 183 of the Criminal Procedure Code is used. The legal norm emphasizes the burden of proving criminal offenses to the public prosecutor. This is in line with the principle of the actori incumbit onus probandi, which means who demands, he proves. Meanwhile, regarding the types of evidence that are valid and may be used to prove what has been determined in article 184 paragraph one of the Criminal Procedure Code, are witness statements, expert statements, letters, instructions, and statements of the defendant.