Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Education Policy Implementation in Vietnam

Do Phu Hai

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2019/v3i330097

The public policy evaluation receives the most concern from different public policy actors. The article is represented for the evaluation of education policy implementation in Vietnam. The implementation evaluation concentrated on the education policy objective and policy solutions and their instruments under the policy conditions which are the point of views of the political party and policy actors. As a result of the policy implementation evaluation, it supports for the policy change to enhance the implementation of education policy in Vietnam. Some of findings are really interesting for developing countries in the education policy such as choosing optimal policy solutions and appropriate policy instruments.

Open Access Original Research Article

Training National and Vocational Women: Characteristics of Curriculum of Female Secondary Education in Colonized Manchuria

Wenwen Wang

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2019/v3i330099

Background: The Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (1932-1945) set up a specialized curriculum and published textbooks specifically for girls, with the purpose of training girls to become “good wives and wise mothers”. Over the course of the state’s existence, the regime adjusted its curriculum, following the policies and needs of the Japanese Empire. This paper assesses how the government changed the curriculum, focusing on and what kind of female roles they tried to teach to the Chinese girls.

Methodology: This paper compares and analyzes the content and classroom hours of the curriculum of public women’s secondary schools in Manchuria in three periods: 1) 1926-1937, 2) 1938-1941, and 3) 1941-1945. The data of this study was collected from material published by the Fengtian Female Normal School, and the Manchukuo provincial education magazine Fengtian Education.

Results: From the state’s earliest period, Manchukuo education officials emphasized females’ “natural duty” as “Good Wives, Wise Mothers.” Over time, however, they also increasingly emphasized learning the Japanese language, vocational skills, and patriotic content, in order to serve the goals of Japan during the World War II.

Conclusion: Despite the consistent rhetoric which emphasized women becoming mothers, and possibly teachers, the curriculum and contents of the education changed according to the interests of the state and the needs of the war, encouraging women to serve the state by taking up some of the roles that men had played.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Occupational Stress and Organizational Stress towards Job Satisfaction: A Study Based on Banking Sector Employees in Sri Lanka

P. Siyambalapitiya, V. Sachitra

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2019/v3i330100

Aims: Occupational stress, organizational stress, common occurrences among various professions worldwide, is regarded as a major psychological problem for banking employees. The aims of the study were to identify the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction among employees in banking sector of Sri Lanka, to identify the relationship between organizational stress and job satisfaction among employees in banking sector of Sri Lanka and to ensure whether there any differences of the occupational stress, organizational stress and job satisfaction with respect to private and public banks, gender and working experience.

Methodology: A non-experimental correlational design was used in the study. A total of 200 banking employees from 6 banks completed the banking employees Stress Index, the Job Satisfaction Survey.

Results: Study findings demonstrated that there were significant positive relationships between organizational stress and job satisfaction and between occupational stress and job satisfaction there was no any significant relationship. There were significant differences in levels of job satisfaction, between male and female banking employees. Male banking employees reported higher levels of job satisfaction. Working experience wise and sector wise, there was not any significant level of differences among organizational stress and occupational stress.

Conclusion: Future research is needed to examine best practices for human resource managers to improve banking employee motivation and job satisfaction of banking employees.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Vocational Rehabilitation for Societal Re- Integration of Inmates in Nigerian Prisons in Rivers State

Deebom, MtormaBari TamBari, Kooli, Ledornu Promise, Deebom, Ibiso

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2019/v3i330103

The study examines how vocational trades’ acquisition rehabilitates inmates for reintegration in to the society.  Inmates that are expose to vocational training during the period of incarceration easily gets rehabilitated and can reintegrate in to the society upon discharge as a result of possession of skills that can make him/her useful. The study adopted the descriptive research survey design. The population of the study consists of 4723 inmates and 509 prison officers. A sample of 593 respondents (369 convicted inmates and 224 officers) were selected which is a representative of the population. Inmates were purposively selected while simple random sampling technique was adopted for the selection of the officers from four Nigerian prisons in Rivers State. Three research questions were answered with two null hypotheses that were tested at 0.05 significant levels. Instrument for data collection was a self-constructed questionnaire titled “Vocational Rehabilitation of Inmates for Societal Reintegration Questionnaire” (VRISRQ) which was validated by two experts. The instrument was designed using a checklist and Likert-5 point rating scale of agreement. The instrument was subjected to reliability test through Kuder-Richardson formula 20 (KR20) and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Reliability coefficients of 0.87, 0.82 and 0.86 were obtained for different sections of the instrument respectively. Frequency and percentage was used to answered research question 1 while research questions 2 and 3 were answered using mean with standard deviation. Hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significant using independent sample t-test. The findings of the study revealed that vocational trades that are available in Nigerian prisons in Rivers State can rehabilitate inmates if they are acquired. The study also found that acquisitions of vocational trades by inmates are marred with challenges such as poor training facilities, poor funding. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that prison authorities should expose the inmates to vocational trades that are available in the prison for acquisition to enhance their rehabilitation and reintegration and that Government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) should assist in provision of training facilities in the prison as this will make acquisition of vocational trades realizable.

Open Access Review Article

Poverty: A Major Challenge to the African Rural Educational System Development and the Way Forward (Review)

Donatus Okeowhor, Joel Ogechukwu Okoh, Anthony Baakel, Ogochukwu Judith Okolo

Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajess/2019/v3i330098

Considering the significance of rural poverty across the continent of Africa, it should come as no surprise that rural school children are the most disadvantaged from a socioeconomic perspective when it comes to access to a quality education. Rural schools generally have less qualified teachers and not enough teachers for the number of children enrolled in school. This is clearly evident in the low teachers-per-school ratios and teacher-to-pupil ratios in most rural African regions. The reasons for these low numbers in rural Africa are many and very much linked to poverty and other inequalities and socioeconomic conditions. For example, teachers generally prefer urban to rural schools because urban areas offer greater opportunities and higher incomes. There is also a better quality of life in urban areas, with better access to good infrastructure, other services (such as healthcare) and general public goods. In contrast, rural areas in Africa are often characterized by poor or nonexistent infrastructure and little or no provisions for other critical social services. This in turn negatively impacts the quality of education for rural-area children since even getting to school is a more difficult challenge and illness of a pupil or a family member may force the pupil to drop out of school entirely. Students in rural regions of Africa are further disadvantaged by the fact that their parents are generally uneducated. Again, we see that other socioeconomic conditions and inequalities greatly impact the quality of education in rural areas compared to urban centers. The continent’s education crisis is serious and it adversely affects rural areas more than urban ones. African governments and their development partners should not underestimate the long-term consequences of continued poverty and socioeconomic inequalities in rural areas. These conditions will only continue to exacerbate the education and learning gaps between rural and urban African schoolchildren. And in turn, poor quality education in rural areas will only continue to perpetuate long-term poverty in the region.