Strategic Planning in Education: A Systematic Review

Jecyl C. Bantilan *

Davao del Norte State College, New Visayas, Panabo City, Davao del Norte, Philippines.

Prima O. Deguito

Davao del Norte State College, New Visayas, Panabo City, Davao del Norte, Philippines.

Archie S. Otero

Davao del Norte State College, New Visayas, Panabo City, Davao del Norte, Philippines.

Analyn R. Regidor

Davao del Norte State College, New Visayas, Panabo City, Davao del Norte, Philippines.

Marilou D. Junsay

Davao del Norte State College, New Visayas, Panabo City, Davao del Norte, Philippines.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Problems in the educational system must be addressed immediately given their adverse effects on school operations. In dealing with these matters, strategic planning plays a vital role in creating a specific plan of action to overcome organizational issues. Thus, this systematic review explored the various literature on strategic planning in education through the PRISMA framework. Studies included in this review are focused on the challenges, processes, and impact of strategic planning in educational institutions written in the English language and conducted between 2020 and 2022 from Google Scholar. Out of 131 records identified from database searching, fifteen articles from eight countries revealed three themes for the challenges of strategic planning, namely: lack of knowledge and skills in strategic planning, improper conduct of strategic planning, and low level of stakeholder involvement in strategic planning. The analysis also showed three themes for the process of strategic planning, namely: considering organizational vision, mission, goals, and objectives, involving stakeholders in strategic planning, and evaluating the internal and external environment. Finally, the two themes about the impact of strategic planning are gaining a competitive advantage and determining the organization's present and future course. These findings necessitate the conduct of strategic planning to improve educational organization. However, schools had trouble conducting it properly. Therefore, future researchers may explore more strategies to overcome the said problems. They can also delve into issues, perspectives, and techniques of strategic planning during the implementation of a full face-to-face learning modality to examine challenges and adjustments of plans amidst transition.

Keywords: Challenges, impact, organization, process, system

How to Cite

Bantilan , J. C., Deguito , P. O., Otero , A. S., Regidor , A. R., & Junsay , M. D. (2023). Strategic Planning in Education: A Systematic Review. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 45(1), 40–54.


Al Kadri H, Widiawati W. Strategic planning in developing the quality of educators and education personnel. Indonesian Research Journal in IRJE. 2020;4(2):324-346. DOI:

Flanders K. Manager in the middle: A view of Strategic Planning in Higher Education from the Middle Management Perspective. Mercer University ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. 2020;28152366.


Austin I. Strategic planning: a remedy for the successful management of Nigeria Secondary School System. International Journal of Secondary Education. 2020;8(2):53. DOI:

Moran B. Strategic planning in higher education. ACRL College & Research Libraries News. 2020;46(6).


Tarifi N. A Critical review of theoretical aspects of strategic planning and firm performance. Open Journal of Business and Management. 2021;9:1980-1996. DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.94107.

Yaakob MFM, Musa MR, Habibi A, Othman R. Strategic management and strategic planning in school: Is it worth for teachers. Academy of Strategic Management Journal. 2019;18(3):1-6.

Jalal A, Murray A. Strategic planning for higher education: A novel model for a strategic planning process for higher education. Journal of Higher Education Service Science and Management (JoHESSM). 2019;2(2).


Mensah J. Improving quality management in higher education institutions in developing countries through strategic planning. Asian Journal of Contemporary Education. 2020;4(1): 9–25.


Onuorah HC. Challenges affecting the implementation of strategic plans in secondary schools in Otoucha Education Zone of Anambra State. The Proceeding of 19th Multi-Disciplinary Academic Conference, Hummingbird Publications and Research International on Refocusing: Challenges and Opportunities in 21st Century. 2020;21(2).


Khan KS, Kunz R, Kleijnen J, Antes G. Five steps to conducting a systematic review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2003;96(3):118–121. DOI:

Park HY, Suh CH, Woo S, Kim PH, Kim KW. Quality reporting of systematic review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA 2020 guidelines: Results from recently published papers in the Korean journal of radiology. Korean Journal of Radiology. 2022;23(3):355. DOI:

Ruzsbánszki N. Strategic planning process at a swedish higher education institution. Spring; 2022.


Staub D. Effective strategic planning for accreditation in higher education. Research Journal of PNQAHE. 2021;2(2). Available:

Susanto AB, Kurniaty, Purnamie T, Kapriani. Strategic planning as a mediation of the influence of organizational climate and competence to the competitive advantage of private higher education. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2021;921(1): 012038. DOI:

Abraheem MK. The impact of strategic planning on administrative empowerment in higher education institutions. Akkad Journal of Contemporary Management Studies. 2021;1(1):1-20.

Minson P. An examination on incorporating risk in the strategic planning process at higher education institutions. Saint Peter’s University; 2021. Available:

Bayram A. Viewpoints of some managers and employees in the Ministry of Education about the implementations of their strategic planning. International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction. 2021;13(1): 450–473.


Priyambodo P, Hasanah E. Strategic planning in increasing quality of education. Nidhomul Haq: Jurnal Manajemen Pendidikan Islam. 2021;6(1):109–126. DOI:

Sadik M, Marouf H, Khaleel A. The role of strategic planning in the transformation of university education. Spring. 2020;5(2). Available:

Al Basel MM, Osman RW. Reality of strategic planning practice from the perspective of education faculty members. World Journal of Education. 2020; 10(2):127. DOI:

Hadji M, Osukunle O. The South African higher education strategic planning process: compliance or shaping the future. African Journal of Development Studies. 2020;10(3). Available:

Burdge A. An instrumental case study for the implementation of Strategic Planning at the College of Education at a Select Southern University. Louisiana Tech Digital Commons; 2020.


Babalola J. Awareness, acceptance, and application of strategic planning among Ministry of Education Officials in Southwest Nigeria. UNESWA Journal of Education. 2020;3(1).


Ebiziem JE, Ebere NNI, Izim OD. Strategic planning in the education sector in Nigeria: An appraisal. Net Journal of Social Sciences. 2020;9(1):1–10. DOI:

Aristyatama HA. Strategic planning for public sector organizations: evidence from the Department of Education and Culture in Kendal Regency. Advanced Journal of Social Science. 2020;6(1):83–95.


Ma LL, Wang YY, Yang ZH, Huang D, Weng H, Zeng XT. Methodological quality (risk of bias) assessment tools for primary and secondary medical studies: what are they and which is better? Military Medical Research. 2020;7(1).