Self-Directed Learning, Self-Efficacy in Learning, and Academic Motivation of Public Senior High School Students
Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies,
Aims: The absence of data complementing independent learning, which is vital in the pandemic-induced distance learning, propelled the conduct of study. The study aimed to assess Self-Directed Learning, Self-Efficacy in Learning, and Academic Motivation of Public Senior High School Students, and investigated what demographic variable may influence each. It also sought to determine the correlation between the constructs.
Methodology: The study utilized descriptive and correlational design. Respondents were the 332 Grade-12 students from the Schools Division of Cadiz City, School Year 2020-2021, determined using multi-stage random sampling. Data were generated using the Self-Directed Learning Inventory, Self-Efficacy in Learning Form, and Academic Motivation Scale – High School Version. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, chi-square test of association, and Spearman rho rank correlation.
Results: There was no significant relationship between demographics and Self-Directed Learning, likewise with Academic Motivation. There was no significant relationship between sex and Self-Efficacy in Learning, however the latter had a significant relationship with family income (P=.05) and track (P=.03). There was a significant relationship between self-directed learning and self-efficacy in learning (P=.000), and between self-directed learning and academic motivation (P=.000).
Conclusion: Student demographics do not influence their disposition to engage in learning activities and with their perceived reasons to participate in it. Family income, together with the track where they belong, may influence their belief in their innate capabilities. Students who are internally driven to learn, and who have strong belief in their capabilities, will find all means to master competence on academics, even without the help of other people.
- high school students
How to Cite
Accessed 7 November 2020.
Brandt WC. Measuring student success skills: A review of the literature on self-directed learning. 21st Century Success Skills. National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment; 2020.
Loyens SM, Magda J, Rikers RM. Self-directed learning in problem-based learning and its relationships with self-regulated learning. Educational psychology review. 2008;20(4):411-27.
Jossberger H, Brand‐Gruwel S, Boshuizen H, Van de Wiel M. The challenge of self‐directed and self‐regulated learning in vocational education: A theoretical analysis and synthesis of requirements. Journal of vocational education and training. 2010;62(4):415-40.
Republic Act No. 10533. An act enhancing the philippine basic education system by strengthening its curriculum and increasing the number of years for basic education, appropriating funds therefor and for other purposes; 2013.
Accessed 11 November 2020.
Mahinay Jr DG. Self-efficacy of natural and allied science college teachers in a State University. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 2019;7(2).
Refugio C. Self-efficacy and basic statistics performance. International Review of Social Sciences. 2018;6(1).
Martinez HT, Maravilla MW. Self-efficacy and college readiness of senior high school students of a catholic high school. Philippine Social Science Journal. 2020;3(2):113-4.
Campos PD, Madrigal DV. Self-efficacy and academic motivation of students in a catholic high school with parents working abroad. Philippine Social Science Journal. 2020;3(2):117-8.
Galang AJ. Motivational and social aspects of the filipino college experience. Philippine Journal of Psychology. 2009;42(2):213-35.
Ilagan JR, Hechanova MR, Co T, Pleyto V. Bakit ka kumakayod? Developing a Filipino needs theory of motivation. Philippine Journal of Psychology. 2014;47(1):117-43.
Dynan L, Cate T, Rhee K. The impact of learning structure on students' readiness for self-directed learning. Journal of education for business. 2008;84(2): 96-100.
UNESCO. Asia Pacific regional seminar on sub-regional cooperation for achieving SDG 4 – education 2030. Sukhumvit Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand. 2017;S31.
Accessed 22 August 2020.
DepEd Order No. 12 series of 2020. Adoption of the Basic education learning continuity plan for school-year 2020-2021 in Light of the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency.
Accessed 14 November 2020.
Canipe JB. The relationship between self-directed learning and learning styles. The University of Tennessee; 2001.
Merriam SB. Andragogy and self-directed learning: Pillars of adult learning theory. New directions for adult and continuing education. 2001;2001(89):3.
Knowles MS. Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers; 1975.
Carson EH. Self-directed learning and academic achievement in secondary online students (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga); 2012.
Brockett RG, Hiemstra R. Self-direction in adult learning: Perspectives on theory, research, and practice. Routledge; 2018.
Garrison DR. Self-directed learning: Toward a comprehensive model. Adult education quarterly. 1997;48(1):18-33.
Slater CE. Self-directed learning readiness of students in health professional preparation programs: Informing teaching and learning approaches; 2018.
Lounsbury JW, Gibson LW. Personal style inventory: A personality measurement system for work and school settings. Knoxville, TN: Resource Associates Inc; 2006.
Bandura A, editor. Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge university press; 1995.
Bandura A, Freeman WH, Lightsey R. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control; 1997.
Zimmerman BJ. Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary educational psychology. 2000;25(1):82-91.
Bryant SK. Self-efficacy sources and academic motivation: A Qualitative study of 10th graders (Doctoral dissertation, East Tennessee State University); 2017.
Lounsbury JW, Levy JJ, Park SH, Gibson LW, Smith R. An investigation of the construct validity of the personality trait of self-directed learning. Learning and Individual Differences. 2009;19(4):411-8.
Lew KH, Park JH. Effects of achievement goal orientation and self-determination motivation on self-directed learning in high school students. ASIA LIFE SCIENCES. 2015:587-96.
Meng LN, Zhang XH, Lei MJ, Liu YQ, Liu TT, Jin CD. Relationship between self-directed learning readiness, learning attitude, and self-efficacy of nursing undergraduates. Frontiers. 2019;4.
Cherry K. What is Motivation?; 2020.
Accessed 20 December 2020.
Ryan RM, Deci EL. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist. 2000;55(1):68.
Kind S. Academic motivation factors at the middle school level, responsive teaching, and student voices (Doctoral dissertation, Concordia University Irvine); 2019.
Cazan AM, Schiopca BA. Self-directed learning, personality traits and academic achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;127:640-4.
Triastuti NJ. The influence of self directed learning readiness and self study on academic achievement of medical students. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research. 2016;26(2):533-7.
John JV, Michael JC. Self directed learning practices and academic performance among undergraduate nursing students. International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET). 2018;6(3):1173-7.
Wang MT, Eccles JS. School context, achievement motivation, and academic engagement: A longitudinal study of school engagement using a multidimensional perspective. Learning and Instruction. 2013;28:12-23.
Islam MN, Chakrabarty S. A Study of the relationship between familial factors and academic motivation and achievement in high school students. Psychological Studies. 2020;65(1):87-96.
Saeid N, Eslaminejad T. Relationship between student's self-directed-learning readiness and academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation in students. International Education Studies. 2017;10(1):225-32.
Heo J, Han S. Effects of motivation, academic stress and age in predicting self-directed learning readiness (SDLR): Focused on online college students. Education and Information Technologies. 2018;23(1):61-71.
Adib M, Ghiyasvandian S, Varaei S, Roushan ZA. Relationship between academic motivation and self-directed learning in nursing students. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 2019;1-9.
Gibbons M. The self-directed learning handbook: Challenging adolescent students to excel. John Wiley & Sons; 2003.
Gladwell M. Most likely to succeed. The New Yorker. 2008;15:36-42.
Slater CE, Cusick A, Louie JC. Explaining variance in self-directed learning readiness of first year students in health professional programs. BMC medical education. 2017;17(1):1-0.
Benaoui M. The impact of self-efficacy in mathematics on urban high school graduates' math performance. Northeastern University; 2016.
Koparan Ş, Öztürk F, Özkılıç R, Şenışık Y. An investigation of social self-efficacy expectations and assertiveness in multi-program high school students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2009;1(1):623-9.
Hong YR. Effects of child-rearing attitude and parent-school age communication on self-efficacy of school-age children. Child Health Nursing Research. 2009;15(4):392-400.
Han J, Chu X, Song H, Li Y. Social capital, socioeconomic status and self-efficacy. Applied Economics and Finance. 2015;2(1):1-0.
Karaarslan G, Sungur S. Elementary students' self-efficacy beliefs in science: Role of grade level, gender, and socio-economic status. Science Education International. 2011;22(1):72-9.
Villas J. Self-Efficacy of filipino senior high school students: Differences among tracks/strand and type of school. Journal of Education and Practice. 2019;10(8).
Zamfir AM, Mocanu C. Perceived academic self-efficacy among romanian upper secondary education students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(13):4689.
Liu HJ, Cheng SH. Assessing language anxiety in EFL students with varying degrees of motivation. Electronic journal of foreign language teaching. 2014;11(2).
Penk C, Pöhlmann C, Roppelt A. The role of test-taking motivation for students’ performance in low-stakes assessments: an investigation of school-track-specific differences. Large-scale Assessments in Education. 2014;2(1):1-7.
Momanyi JM, Too J, Simiyu C. Effect of students’ age on academic motivation and academic performance among high school students in Kenya. Asian Journal of Education and E-learning. 2015; 3(5).
Schaffner E, Philipp M, Schiefele U. Reciprocal effects between intrinsic reading motivation and reading competence? A cross‐lagged panel model for academic track and nonacademic track students. Journal of Research in Reading. 2016;39(1):19-36.
Zimmerman B, Kitsantas A. Reliability and validity of self-efficacy for learning form (SELF) scores of college students. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology. 2007;215(3):157-63.
Vallerand RJ, Pelletier LG, Blais MR, Briere NM, Senecal C, Vallieres EF. The Academic motivation scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and psychological measurement. 1992;52(4):1003- 17.
Grow GO. Teaching learners to be self-directed. Adult education quarterly. 1991;41(3):125-49.
Schulze AS. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) and completion rates: Are self-directed adult learners the most successful at MOOCs? (Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University); 2014.
Jaleel S, Anuroofa OM. A study on secondary school students’ Perspectives on self-directed learning. IJAR. 2017;3(1):262-6.
Nejad EH, Khani SS. Studying the interaction of gender and self-efficacy [high and low] on the academic achievement of students in third grade. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences. 2014;3:67-72.
Fallan L, Opstad L. Student self-efficacy and gender-personality interactions. International journal of higher education. 2016;5(3):32-44.
Flavier C. Challenges and self-efficacy of senior high school students in LCC silvercrest: Basis for guidance enrichment program. Institutional Research, Guidance, and Counseling Department; 2018.
Mozahem NA, Boulad FM, Ghanem CM. Secondary school students and self-efficacy in mathematics: Gender and age differences. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology. 2020;1-1.
Chu X, Li Z, Yan B, Han J, Fan F. Comparative study of regular and vocational high school students on family socioeconomic status, social support, self-efficacy and well-being. Open Journal of Social Sciences. 2015;3(08):61.
Bugler M, McGeown SP, St Clair-Thompson H. Gender differences in adolescents’ academic motivation and classroom behaviour. Educational Psychology. 2015;35(5):541-56.
Gobena GA. Family socio-economic status effect on students’ academic achievement at college of education and behavioral sciences, Haramaya University, Eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators. 2018;7(3):207-22.
Abstract View: 775 times
PDF Download: 220 times