Gender Equality and Economic Growth: A Case of Lusaka District, Zambia

Loveness Ngulube *

School of Postgraduate Studies, Chreso University, Zambia.

Chanda Chansa Thelma

Department of Humanities, Education, and Social Sciences, Chreso University, Zambia.

Mwila Mwenda Gilbert

Department of ECE and Primary Education, Rockview University, Lusaka, Zambia.

Chisebe Sylvester

School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Eden University, Lusaka, Zambia.

Daniel L. Mpolomoka

School of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, Unicaf University, Lusaka, Zambia.

Daniel Monta Mulenga

School of Health Sciences, Rockview University, Lusaka, Zambia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Overview: Gender equality and economic growth in Zambia are deeply interconnected, with advancements in one area positively influencing the other. In recent years, Zambia has made strides toward gender equality by implementing policies aimed at increasing women's participation in the workforce and ensuring equal access to education. These measures have not only empowered women but have also contributed to the country's economic growth. The study was conducted in Lusaka district, the capital city of Zambia from which the participants were selected for the study.

Body of Knowledge: Gender equality and economic growth are closely intertwined in Zambia, where strides toward reducing gender disparities have shown positive impacts on the nation's economic development. Enhanced access to education for girls, improved maternal health services, and increased participation of women in the workforce contribute significantly to economic productivity. When women are empowered and given equal opportunities, they are more likely to engage in entrepreneurial activities and secure better-paying jobs, thereby boosting household incomes and reducing poverty.

Methods: The total target population was 1200. The sample size involved a total of 120 respondents; both men and women, which was 10% of the target population. A mixed method approach was used in this study in combination with the descriptive survey design. Interviews and surveys were used to collect data. Graphs and pie-charts were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data obtained. Data was analyzed using statistical methods and manually in some cases with a combination of software MS Access, MS Excel, and SPSS.

Results: The study findings indicated that while Zambia has made strides in improving gender equality, significant disparities remain, particularly in areas such as education, employment, and political participation. Women in Zambia continue to face barriers to accessing quality education and formal employment, which in turn hampers their economic empowerment and contribution to economic growth. Additionally, cultural norms and legal constraints often limit women's opportunities and reinforce gender inequities.

Recommendation: Policy interventions aimed at closing the gender gap, such as promoting female education, improving access to financial services for women, and enforcing laws against gender-based discrimination, are critical for harnessing the potential of women to drive sustainable economic growth in Zambia.

Keywords: Economic growth, education, gender equality, policy implementation, poverty reduction

How to Cite

Ngulube, Loveness, Chanda Chansa Thelma, Mwila Mwenda Gilbert, Chisebe Sylvester, Daniel L. Mpolomoka, and Daniel Monta Mulenga. 2024. “Gender Equality and Economic Growth: A Case of Lusaka District, Zambia”. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies 50 (7):181-96.


Download data is not yet available.


Chanda CT. Civic education and citizen participation in local governance: A case of Lusaka District, Zambia. International Journal of Research Publication and Reviews. 2024;5(3), ISSN 2582-7421

Hazarika. Niru. A Step toward Women Empowerment. The Assam Tribune. 2005;6.

Singh, Vaishnavi, Shubhi Patel, Rakesh Singh. Analyzing gender disparities in land ownership and wage rates in Indian agriculture: An empirical study. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics and Sociology. 2023;41(9):652-60.


Kalinda Roy, Masauso Chirwa, Kusanthan Thankian. Women and land tenure in Zambia: Legal and customary challenges for women. Archives of Current Research International. 2022;22(8):60-70. Available:

Palència L, Malmusi D, De Moortel D, Artazcoz L, Backhans M, Vanroelen C, Borrell C. The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe. Social Science and Medicine. 2014;117:25-33.

Rubio JAC, Collazo-Mazón A, Amorós-Martínez A. Public recognition of gender equality in the workplace and its influence on firms’ performance. Women’s Studies International Forum. 2019;76:102273.Available:

Chanda CT, Ngulube L. Women in leadership: Examining barriers to women's advancement in leadership positions. Asian Journal of Advanced Research and Reports. 2024;18(6):273-290.Available:, Article no. AJARR.116903, ISSN: 2582-3248.

Andrade MS. Gender Equality in the Workplace: A Global Perspective. Strategic HR Review. 2022;21(5):158–163. Available:

Chanda CT, Chitondo L, Mumbi M, Kamwengo C. Analysis on the effects of early marriages on a girl child’s education: A case of selected secondary schools in Solwezi District of North-Western Province, Zambia. Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research. 2023;10(9):, (ISSN-2349-5162)

Hazarika. Beauty, Soni JC, Dutta. Jadab. A study of women empowerment in educational perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Social and Movement Sciences, ISSN: 2277-7547. 2014;03(02):35-44.

Chanda CT. Cultural factors contributing to gender-based violence in Zambian societies. World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews. 2024;22(02):123-138.Available:


Iyer A, Ryan MK. Why do men and women challenge gender discrimination in the workplace? the role of group status and in-group identification in predicting pathways to collective action. Journal of Social Issues. 2009;65(4):791–814. Available:

Chitondo L, Chanda CT. Effects of ethnic diversity on the development of a country: A case of Zambia. International Journal of Current Business and Social Sciences. 2023;9(5), ISSN: 2312-5985.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment). The Republican of Zambia; 2016.

Mpolomoka DL, Chulu T, Mwandila N, Muvombo M, Simwinga EC, Kabungo CJ, Sampa PC. Exploring problems faced by female students in a weekly boarding day secondary school in Chadiza, Zambia. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science. 2023;36(3):38-53.DOI: 10.9734/JESBS/2023/v36i31213,

Article no. JESBS.9644,1ISSN: 2456-981X.

Zambia Government Gazette dated 2015-12-24 number 6449. Act 22 of 2015.

Chanda CT. Factors influencing low female participation in Zambian politics. A case of chawama constituency of Lusaka District, Zambia. International Research Journal of Modernization in Engineering Technology and Science. 2023;05(08), Available:https//

Chanda CT. Effects of free education policy on quality education: A case of selected secondary schools in Lusaka District, Zambia. International Research Journal of Modernization in Engineering Technology and Science. 2023;05(08):


Chanda CT, Madoda D. Exploring the relationship between cultural identity and educational equity: A Zambian analysis. International Journal of Research Publication and Reviews. 2024;5(5), ISSN 2582-7421

Mikołajczak G, Becker JC, Iyer A. Women who challenge or defend the status quo: Ingroup identities as predictors of progressive and reactionary collective action. European Journal of Social Psychology. 2022;52:626–641. Available:

COM final. 2010 Europe 2020—A European Strategy for Smart, Sustainable, and Inclusive Growth. European Commission; 2020.

Chanda CT, Chitondo L. Leadership for sustainable development in Africa: A comprehensive perspective. International Journal of Research Publication and Reviews. 2024;5(2), ISSN 2582-7421

Dahl GB, Kotsadam A, Rooth DO. Does integration change gender attitudes? The Effect of Randomly Assigning Women to Traditionally Male Teams. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2021;136(2):987–1030.

Chanda CT. Social-economic factors affecting small business performance among chisokone marketers in Kitwe district of Copperbelt Province, Zambia. International Journal of Science and Research Archive. 2023;10(01):648- 657.Available:, Available:https//

Thomas S, Hephzibah V, Thomson B. Decoding the gender equality among women in workplace: The formula to accelerate implementation of psychological interventions for gender equality. In book: Minorities of India: Issues and Challenges. Bluerose Publishers. 2024;283-292.

Banda S, Mpolomoka DL, Mbono D, Sampa RL. Use of questions in qualitative research: How questions guided our study. International Journal of Development Research. 2017;7(12):17895-17898.Available:, ISSN: 2230-9926

Chanda CT, Phiri VE, Mutepuka E, Chisebe S. Effects of poverty on early marriages: A case of mansa district in luapula province, Zambia. International Journal for Multidisciplinary Research. 2023;5(4)

Mpolomoka DL, Luchembe M, Sampa P, Banda S, Mandyata J, Mushibwe C, Chulu T, Matimba M. Human rights insights into school and community viewpoints of girl-child schooling in rural areas of Chadiza District, Eastern Province, Zambia. International Journal of Childhood, Counselling, and Special Education (CCSE). 2023;5(2):34-42.Available:, E-ISSN 2709-5843 | P-ISSN 2709-5835.

Alum, Shamin, Women’s Development, Problems and Prospects, New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation. 1996;81(84):79.

Cabactulan FB. Gender Equality in the Workplace: A Tracer Study on the Employment Status Of Mindanao State University at Naawan Graduates and its Implications on Gender Gap. Zenodo (CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research); 2022.Available:

Bhatia. Ranjana. Women Empowerment in Educational Management and Developing Learning Qualities in Women. Edutracks, Neelkamal Publication Pvt. Ltd, Koti, Hyderbad. 2007;7(2):19.

Hoogendoorn S, Oosterbeek H, Van Praag M. The impact of gender diversity on the performance of business teams: Evidence from a field experiment. Management Science. 2013;59(7):1514–1528. Available:

Van Berkel L, Molina LE, Mukherjee S. Gender asymmetry in the construction of American national identity. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 2017;41(3):352– 367.Available:

Wu R, Cheng X. Gender equality in the workplace: The effect of gender equality on productivity growth among the Chilean manufacturers. Journal of Developing Areas. 2016; 50(1):257– 274. Available:

Banda S, Mpolomoka DL. Culturally Relevant Education and Training for Communities: A Review. African Educational Research Journal. 2018;6(2): 88-93.

Vaccaro G. Using econometrics to reduce gender discrimination: Evidence from a difference-in-discontinuity design. In 2nd IZA Workshop: Gender and Family Economics, New York; 2018.Available:, ISSN: ISSN-2354-2160.

Chanda CT, Chitondo L, Chisebe S, Phiri VE, Mwila MG. Analyzing sources of instability in Africa: A comprehensive review. International Research Journal of Modernization in Engineering Technology and Science. 2024;06(02), https//

Chanda CT, Phiri VE, Mutepuka E. Impact of re-entry policy implementation on the academic performance of learners: A case of selected secondary schools in Lusaka District, Zambia. Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research. 2023;10(8), (ISSN-2349-5162).

Khandker SR, Koolwal GB, Samad HA. Handbook on Impact Evaluation: Quantitative Methods and Practices. World Bank Publications; 2009.