Barriers to Implementing Civic Education as a Compulsory Subject in Kabwe District Secondary Schools, Zambia

Dingase E. Mtonga *

Mulungushi University, Kabwe Central Province, Zambia.

Oliver Magasu

Kwame Nkrumah University, Kabwe Central Province, Zambia.

Clement Mwaanga

Mulungushi University, Kabwe Central Province, Zambia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Civic education stands as a cornerstone in shaping active citizenship and fostering democratic values within the educational systems. However, the Zambia national education policy provides that the subject should be taught to all learners at the senior secondary school level. Nonetheless, this study investigated the barriers to implementing civic education as a compulsory subject at the senior secondary school level in Zambia, with a focus on Kabwe District secondary schools. Employing a mixed-methods approach under the convergent parallel design, quantitative and qualitative data was simultaneously collected from 319 participants comprising head teachers, heads of department social sciences, teachers of civic education, section heads, grade 12 learners and key informants from the Ministry of Education. An online questionnaire was employed to collect quantitative data presented on charts, while qualitative data was gathered through interviews, focus group discussions and document review was presented thematically. Findings reveal high value attributed to civic education by offering the subject to all learners, ensuring adequate-skilled teachers, encouraging active civic engagement opportunities and adequate allocation of material and resources. Barriers identified included the optional status of civic education in the 2013 curriculum framework, lack of clear guidelines, insufficient planning, and inadequate support from authorities. The study contributes valuable insights for policy makers, educators and researchers, informing decision-making processes, curriculum development, and policy adjustments. The study recommends policy reforms by the government to maintain the status of civic education as a compulsory subject in the curriculum framework by lobbying for clear guidelines and emphasising its value.

Keywords: Barriers, civic education, compulsory subject, implementation, policy

How to Cite

Mtonga, D. E., Magasu , O., & Mwaanga , C. (2024). Barriers to Implementing Civic Education as a Compulsory Subject in Kabwe District Secondary Schools, Zambia. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 50(6), 29–39.


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